factors affecting soil microbial biomass

The effects of soil type and organic material quality on the microbial biomass and functional diversity of cropland soils were studied in a transplant experiment in the same climate during a 1-year field experiment. Increased understanding of the size and function of microorganisms after application of different organic materials in different types of agricultural soil is therefore helpful to clarify the effect of organic materials and soil types on microbial characteristics. Generally, the microbial biomass or functional diversity after amendment with crop straws was lower than that with manure in agricultural soils because of the low availability of C sources and nutrients in crop residues [13, 15–18]. Ling Li. Investigation, The high precipitation in the study site would leach the soluble acid ions into the litter bags, thus limiting organic matter availability and inhibiting microbial metabolism (Fig 1) [63–64]. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation e0203812. Soil microbial communities play an important role in supplying essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic matters. Currently, these Chinese cropland soils have the obvious trend of acidification because of excessive N fertilizer application when compared with those soils 30 years ago [34]. When Ci—R <0 or Ci—R <0.06, the values were set to 0 [38]. At the end of the 12th month, the soil organic C (SOC) and C/N ratio of organic materials significantly influenced AWCD, H’, D and U (P < 0.05), and the clay content significantly influenced H’ and D (P < 0.05). Project administration, ODR is affected by several factors. The amount of different organic materials in each bag was described in S1 Table. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t005. PLoS One. where Pi is the ratio of activities on each substrate to the sum of activities on all substrates and ni is the activities on each substrate. You are currently offline. All the organic materials were oven-dried at 60°C, and passed through a 2-mm sieve. No, Is the Subject Area "Straw" applicable to this article? Plant Nutr., 42 (4), 821-831, 1996 821 Factors Affecting Microbial Biomass and Dehydrogenase Activity in Apple Orchard Soils with Heavy Metal Accumulation Masakazu Aoyama 1 and Toshiyuki Nagumo z Faculty of Agriculture, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki, 036 Japan [26]. At the end of the 12th month, the C substrate use pattern was changed in the three soils. Before the experiment, both Calcaric Cambisol from Zhengzhou and Luvic Phaeozem from Gongzhuling were moved to Qiyang County. The Luvic Phaeozem derived from the quaternary loess sediments was located in Gongzhuling County, Jilin Province; this region is characterized by temperate sub-humid climate, with an annual average temperature of 4–5°C and an average annual rainfall of 450–600 mm. Soil texture can also affect the soil nutrient status and water content, thus affecting the living environment and metabolic activity of microorganisms [31–32]. Soil available P was extracted with 0.5 M NaHCO3. When compared with the manures, crop residues, in particular straws with low lignin and high C/N ratio, significantly increased the functional diversity indices at both sampling periods (P < 0.05). biotic factors that controlled Rs. Van Horn1, M. Lee Van Horn2, John E. Barrett3, Michael N. Gooseff4, Adam E. Altrichter3, Kevin M. Geyer3, Lydia … Yes At the end of the 12th month in the present study, the microbial functional diversity indices were positively correlated with C/N ratio of organic materials (Table 5), and the microbial communities in crop residue treatments were separated from those in the control treatment in the three soils (Fig 4); this is because the decomposable C sources from crop residue, including cellulose and hemicellulose, and the lower lignin content in crop residues when compared with that in manures supported high microbial functional diversity [17, 44, 60]. When compared with the end of the 1st month, the MBC at the end of the 12th month decreased by 21.5–28.7%, and the MBN at the end of the 12th month increased by 62.9–143.7% in the three soils (Fig 2). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t003. 4.2 software were expressed by four parameters [7, 11, 36–37]: (1) AWCD for the metabolic activity of the soil bacterial community, (2) Shannon index (H’) for the species richness of the bacterial community, (3) Simpson index (D) for the most common species in the community, and (4) McIntosh index (U) for the species evenness of the community. Microbial CLPPs in soil were determined by Biolog Eco plates (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA). Fi… At two time points (at the end of the 1st and 12th months…, Changes of soil-rhizosphere microbiota after organic amendment application in a Hordeum vulgare L. short-term greenhouse experiment, Interpretations of Elemental and Microbial Phosphorus Indicators to Understand P Availability in Soils Under Rice–Wheat Cropping System, Soil Biological Parameters Inluenced by Various Nitrogen Sources, Decomposition of beech leaves and roots in the topsoil and subsoil of a sandy Cambisol: Results of a one-year incubation, Assessing the sustainability of land use management of northern Ethiopian drylands by various indicators for soil health, Genetic and Metabolic Diversity of Soil Microbiome in Response to Exogenous Organic Matter Amendments, Maize rhizosphere soil stimulates greater soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity leading to subsequent enhancement of cowpea growth, Characterizing changes in soil microbiome abundance and diversity due to different cover crop techniques, Soil Quality Indicators, Building Soil Organic Matter and Microbial Derived Inputs to Soil Organic Matter under Conservation Agriculture Ecosystem: A Review, Interactions between crop residue and soil organic matter quality and the functional diversity of soil microbial communities, Plant biomass, soil microbial community structure and nitrogen cycling under different organic amendment regimes; a 15N tracer-based approach, Changes in soil physico-chemical properties and microbial functional diversity due to 14 years of conversion of grassland to organic agriculture in semi-arid agroecosystem, Soil microbial biomass, functional microbial diversity, and nematode community structure as affected by cover crops and compost in an organic vegetable production system, Changes in soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with a nitrogen gradient in soil columns, Microbial community structure and functional metabolic diversity are associated with organic carbon availability in an agricultural soil, Variations in soil microbial biomass and crop roots due to differing resource quality inputs in a tropical dryland agroecosystem, Community level functional diversity and enzyme activities in paddy soils under different long-term fertilizer management practices, Controls over soil microbial biomass responses to carbon amendments in agricultural systems: A meta-analysis, Spatial variability of microbial richness and diversity and relationships with soil organic carbon, texture and structure across an agricultural field, 2019 International Council on Technologies of Environmental Protection (ICTEP), By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. Though, Luvic Phaeozem soil transfered from the temperate sub-humid region to the subtropical region, however, the short term effect of climate in this study (≤ 1 year) was not enough to alter the initial microbial communities because it had been reported that no significant responses of climate change on microbial communities within less than 10 years [69]. Although nutrient status, seasonality, soil factors, temperature, and other factors, are important drivers to control functioning of dry tropical forest ecosystem, SMB could be one of the vital factors affecting productivity in the tropical dry deciduous forests, as observed in the Vindhyan plateau (Singh et al., 2010). Our observations suggest that grazing m anagement may change soil carbon sequestration rates in The AWCD and McIntosh index was primarily explained by the organic material species (38.4 and 40.3%, respectively), and the Shannon and Simpson indices were primarily explained by soil type (74.4 and 45.3%, respectively). Analysis of variance to evaluate the two primary factors (soil type, organic material type) that influence soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), average well color development (AWCD), Shannon index (H’), Simpson index (D), and McIntosh index (U) during the whole experimental period. Conversely, the N limitation was more serious in crop material treatments with high C/N ratio than in manure treatments (S1 Fig) [46]; the immobilized N induced by crop materials can be recycled in microorganisms with crop materials decomposition [47, 52]. Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment L. Li, M. Xu, +3 authors Dongchu Li Published 2018 During the experimental period, no crops were planted in the plots, and weeds were removed regularly by hand to decrease the effect of weed roots on the nylon bags. PLOS ONE, Sep 2018 Ling Li, Minggang Xu, Mohammad Eyakub Ali, Wenju Zhang, Yinghua Duan, Dongchu Li. Soil organic matter provides energy to microbes, and soil with higher content of SOM generally has higher microbial biomass and functional diversity [7, 17, 24–26]. The AWCD is calculated to reflect the utilization of single C sources by soil microorganisms: In each soil, seven treatments were established as follows: (1) soil-only (control); (2) soil + WS; (3) soil + CS; (4) soil + WR; (5) soil + CR; (6) soil + PM; (7) soil + CM. Table 1. Funding: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571298), and the International (Regional) Joint Research Program (41620104006). Different letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 among different materials in the same soil. When compared with the other two soils in our study (Table 1), Luvic Phaeozem had high microbial biomass because SOC in Luvic Phaeozem is 1.5–2.5 times that of the other two soils. This study suggests that the application of straw is a long-term effective measure to increase microbial biomass, and can further induce the changes of soil properties to regulate soil microbial community. As the experiment proceeded, the amount of available C and N sources decreased and further entered the environment, e.g., as C and N gaseous emissions, dissolved organic C and nitrate leaching under the high precipitation in the experimental subtropical region, especially in the manure amendment treatments; large amounts of easily decomposable and passive decomposable C sources and nutrients were activated by microbial metabolism, and then these activated C sources and nutrients can be easily lost. The average well color development (AWCD) and the functional diversity indices, including Shannon (H’), Simpson (D) and McIntosh (U) indices, are important diagnostic indicators of soil quality [11]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.g003. A soil pH near 7.0 is most suitable for the microbial biomass. The chemical characteristics of these organic materials were shown in Table 2. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002. Investigation, A high Pearson correlation coefficient (> 0.6) for PC1 in the organic material treatments was shown in Table 4. Methodology, To reduce the dimensionality of the data set, a PCA was performed to compare the effect of different organic material treatments on the Biolog Ecoplate utilization patterns of C substrates in the three soils. Soils and organic materials were analyzed for organic C and total C by dichromate oxidation and total N by Kjeldahl digestion. Data curation, Six organic materials (WS: wheat straw, CS: corn straw, WR: wheat root, CR: corn root, PM: pig manure, CM: cattle manure), and three contrasting soils (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem) were chosen. The microbial biomass is affected by factors that change soil water, temperature or carbon content, and include soil type, climate and management practices. Investigation, The objectives of the present study were therefore (1) to explore the changes in microbial biomass and functional diversity during the decomposition of organic materials in different soil types, and (2) to quantify the contributions of soil type and quality of organic materials to microbial biomass and functional diversity. Soils with more clay generally have a higher microbial biomass as they reta… Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment PLoS One . A 20-g subsample of soil (oven-dried basis) was fumigated by exposing the soil to alcohol-free CHCl3 vapor in a sealed vacuum desiccator for 24 h. The fumigated soil was evacuated repeatedly in a clean empty desiccator until the odor of CHCl3 was not detected, and then extracted with 80 ml 0.5 M K2SO4 (soil:K2SO4 = 1:4) for 30 min. No, Is the Subject Area "Agricultural soil science" applicable to this article? In agricultural systems, the available organic materials generally include crop residues and livestock manures; crop residues are characterized by higher C:N ratio and lower available nutrient content in comparison with manure [15]. Organic material quality explained 29.5–50.9% of the variance in MBC and MBN when compared with the minor role of soil type (1.4–9.3%) at the end of the 1st and 12th months, and C/N ratio and total N of organic material were the main parameters. Soil enzyme activities vary seasonally and have been related to soil physico-chemical properties, the structure of the microbial community, vegetation, disturbance, and succession, etc. Although manures, with low C/N ratio and high nitrogen content, significantly increased microbial biomass when compared with crop residues at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05), the crop residues significantly increased the microbial biomass when compared with manures at the end of the 12th month (P < 0.05). Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the Ecoplate data was performed to characterize the effect of different organic materials on soil microbial community functions, and the differences of the factor scores of the first principal component (PC1) axis among organic material treatments at each soil were tested using a one-way ANOVA by Tukey’s HSD (α = 0.05) test at P < 0.05. The C/N ratio of organic materials has generally been shown to be a good predictor of the decomposition of organic materials [45, 48], and organic materials with low C/N ratio can supply sufficient nutrients for microbes [49–50], which was shown by the significantly higher MBC and MBN in manure treatments than those in crop residue treatment at the end of the 1st month (Table 2, Fig 2). Soil type was the main plot factor and organic material was the subplot factor in a split-plot design with six replicates; three replicates were sampled at the end of the 1st month, and the other three replicates were sampled at the end of the 12th month. include increased soil carbon (C) sequestration, enhanced microbial activity, and altered soil nitrogen (N) transformations. 2. Soil pH plays an important role in shaping microbial community composition [27–30]; soil pH was negatively correlated with soil biomass and positively correlated with AWCD [11, 13]. Further, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that clay content was negatively correlated with MBC after the addition of organic materials at the end of the 1st month. li dp 1964@sohu.Com Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment Li, Ling Xu, Minggang Because of their correlation to soil microbial biomass, such basic soil parameters provide additional information for multivariate prediction techniques and are able to increase the calculation's accuracy. Soil pH was determined in water (soil: water = 1: 2.5). Yes Yes The present study was not all consistent with the previous reports, although the Shannon index in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem with lower initial pH (Table 1) was lower than that in Calcaric Cambisol at the end of the 1st month (Fig 3C). Supervision, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t004. These results suggest that the application of crop straw is a long-term effective measure to increase microbial biomass, and can further induce the changes of soil properties to regulate soil microbial community. Conceptualization, For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Soil microbial biomass is a critical factor in ecosystem nutrient cycling [ 16, 17, 18 ], and knowledge about its relation with the ecological stoichiometry of soil is crucial for us to gain insight into the nutrient cycling of terrestrial ecosystems [ 19, 20, 21, 22 ]. The quality of organic materials affects the microbial biomass and community structure [13–16]. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Part of the fresh soil in the bag was taken to determine microbial CLPPs, MBC and MBN, while the remaining soil was air-dried to determine soil organic C (SOC), total N, and pH. We thank Catherine Dandie, PhD, from Liwen Bianji, Edanz Group China (www.liwenbianji.cn/ac), for editing the English text of a draft of this manuscript. Microbial biomass carbon and Shannon’s diversity index after amendment with labile organic materials with low lignin content were significantly higher than that after amendment with recalcitrant organic materials with high lignin content [16–17]. No, Is the Subject Area "Wheat" applicable to this article? here. Writing – review & editing, Roles https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812, Editor: Jingdong Mao, Old Dominion University, UNITED STATES, Received: March 9, 2018; Accepted: August 28, 2018; Published: September 13, 2018. Soil microbial biomass represents the amount of microbes in soil, and was successfully used to detect short-term changes in soil functioning to predict organic C accumulation in soil under organic management [20]. Corg, N) are controlled by factors such as climate, vegetation and relief even on a small scale. Methodology, This study indicates that production temperature is a key factor affecting biochar properties. No, Is the Subject Area "Simpson index" applicable to this article? Methodology, Conceptualization, In China in 2011, 863 million tons of crop straw and 3 trillion tons of livestock manure were produced [5–6]. At the end of the 1st month, soil clay content significantly influenced AWCD and U, pH significantly influenced D, and total nitrogen significantly influenced H’ (P < 0.05). At the end of the 1st month, the ANOVA for principal component 1 (PC1) indicated that the patterns of substrate utilization between the organic materials and the control treatments were significantly different in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem (P < 0.05), and that they were significantly different between the WS and CS treatments and the control in Calcaric Cambisol (P < 0.05, Fig 4A–4C). The lignin content of organic materials significantly influenced H’ and D at the end of the 1st month (P < 0.05). As the experiment proceeded, the soil microbial community in Calcaric Cambisol adapted to the experimental environment, and the low nutrient content in Calcaric Cambisol may encourage the microbes to assimilate exogenous C resources from the added organic materials [13, 65]; hence, significantly higher microbial functional diversity indices were found in Calcaric Cambisol at the end of the 12th month when compared with those in the 1st month. The WS, CS, WR and CR treatments significantly increased the MBC while only the WS and CS treatments significantly increased the MBN when compared with the control in the three soils (P < 0.05, Fig 2B and 2D). Writing – review & editing, Roles PLoS ONE 13(9): SOC and MBC have generally recognized key parameters of soil quality and health, and also they have been linked to forest ecosystem productivity, using as a sensitive indicator for ecosystem monitoring programs. No, Is the Subject Area "Crops" applicable to this article? are one of the most important since the most important factors affecting soil microbial active- ties [12]. Soil properties had less influence on microbial biomass when compared with the organic material quality, with significant effects only observed at the end of the 1st month (Table 3). National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China, Roles Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. After the easily available C was exhausted, soil properties regulated the microbial functional diversity, and the main parameters of soil properties were soil organic C and clay content. Briefly, 5 g of fresh soil was shaken in 45 ml of sterile saline solution (0.85% NaCl w/v) for 30 min at the rate of 180 rpm, and then the mixture was diluted 100-fold. When compared with the other two soils, Luvic Phaeozem soil had the highest SOC content (Table 1) and significantly lower functional diversity indices at both sampling dates (Fig 3), and the reasons were that (1) Luvic Phaeozem per se had the lowest functional diversity as shown the control treatment (Fig 3), (2) soil with high organic matter has sufficient available C sources for microbial assimilation, and showed reduced assimilation of exogenous C sources by microbes when compared with the Ferralic Cambisol and Calcaric Cambisol with lower organic matter content [13, 65]. The effects of biochar on soil microbial and enzyme activities are integrally linked to the potential of biochar in achieving these benefits. A one-way ANOVA was used to determine the differences of soil properties, chemical characteristics of organic material, and the above microbial parameters among organic material treatments at each soil. Figure 2:Microbial biomass carbon over a year from a soil near Meckering, Western Australia. Generally, soils with high SOC content had high microbial biomass [25–26, 53–54], and nutritional stress might occur when SOC was less than 1% [53]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.s001, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.s002. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. As a result, AWCD and McIntosh index were low in Calcaric Cambisol because of its high initial pH (Table 1) at the end of the 1st month. While there is a benefit to increased soil C storage for biochars produced at temperatures >200ºC, they have no effect on soil microbial biomass and activity. [Dynamics of microbial biomass P and its affecting factors in a long-term fertilized black soil]. Lignin is resistant to biodegradation and higher lignin content depresses microbial metabolism; this resulted in the negative correlation between lignin content and the diversity indices (Shannon and Simpson indices) in different organic material treatments at the end of the 1st month [17, 45]. 1. The correlations between different abiotic factors and microbial groups described in this manuscript indicate both the complexity of the soil environment and its sensitivity to various stimuli. The extraction of non-fumigated soil was the same as that of the fumigated soil. Data curation, Yes At two time points (at the end of the 1st and 12th months), soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) (MBC and MBN) and Biolog Ecoplate substrate use patterns were determined, and the average well color development and the microbial functional diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh indices) were calculated. Microbial biomass C and N were estimated by the difference between the total organic C or total N in the fumigated and non-fumigated extracts with a conversion factor (KEC) of 0.38 and (KEN) of 0.45 [40–41], respectively. These factors influence the species composition of soil microbial communities, but also their activity and functionality. The WS and WR treatments significantly increased the AWCD, Shannon and McIntosh indices in Ferralic Cambisol and Luvic Phaeozem when compared with the control, and all organic material treatments increased the functional diversity indices in Calcaric Cambisol when compared with the control (P < 0.05, Fig 3B, 3D, 3F and 3H). No, Is the Subject Area "Shannon index" applicable to this article? Biochar application to soil has been proposed as a potential management strategy to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration, reduce greenhouse gas emission, improve soil quality, and increase crop productivity. Total fiber content of organic material (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) was determined by the method described by van Soest [42]. [11]: Microbially mediated processes in constructed wetlands are mainly dependent on hydraulic conditions, wastewater properties, including substrate and nutrient quality and availability, filter material or soil type, plants, and different environmental factors. Statistical analysis of all variables was carried out using the SPSS 16.0 software package. The experiment was carried out from June 5, 2012 to June 5, 2013 in the long-term experimental station of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qiyang County (111°52′32″N, 26°45′12″E), Hunan Province. Soil properties were more important than organic material properties in explaining the microbial functional diversity as shown in Table 3 [13, 18–19, 24]. When compared with the control, all organic material treatments significantly increased the MBC while only the CM and PM treatments significantly increased the MBN in the three soils (P < 0.05, Fig 2A and 2C). Consequently, the comparison of microbial characteristics in different soil types can improve our understanding of the influence of soil properties on microbes. a comparative assessment of factors which influence microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen levels in soil Soil available K was extracted with 1 M NH4OAc. Soil properties, e.g., organic C and clay content were the predominant influence on microbial functional diversity in particular at the end of the 12th month (61.8–82.8% of the variance explained). Yes There is a specific gas demand for different soil microbes including bacteria, fungi, and other microorga- nisms [7]. The average well color development (AWCD) and the functional diversity indices including Shannon, Simpson and McIntosh indices were often used to investigate the general structure and functional potential of soil microbial communities [13, 24]. The effects of soil type and organic material quality on the microbial biomass and functional diversity of cropland soils were studied in a transplant experiment in the same climate during a 1-year field experiment. Factors affecting soil microbial biomass and functional diversity with the application of organic amendments in three contrasting cropland soils during a field experiment. Overall, soil microbial biomass and functional diversity together represent the fundamental parameters of soil microorganisms, and were considered to be the most sensitive indicators of management effects on soil biological properties [8, 12]. Hence, it explained the lower functional diversity in Luvic Phaeozem than the other two soils. Müller et al. Basic physicochemical properties of three soils. Soil Sci. In each bag, 200 g (oven-dried basis) experimental soil (Ferralic Cambisol, Calcaric Cambisol, Luvic Phaeozem) was thoroughly mixed with organic material at a ratio of 15 g C kg−1 soil, which was equivalent to 34 t C ha−1 returned to the soil. The quality of applied organic materials can regulate microbial abundance and function [2–4]. The management and environmental factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment. Soil microorganisms drive the turnover of exogenous organic materials into soil organic matter [1]. To date, most studies of soil microbial characteristics with different organic materials amendment concentrated mainly on a certain soil or different soils under controlled laboratory conditions [17, 19]; little information is reported about comparative studies of microbial characteristics dynamics in soils developed from different parent materials after amendment with different organic materials under field conditions. Total fiber content of organic material (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin), total organic C, and total organic N were determined. Roles The soil microbial biomass quotient (expressed as a percentage of the total soil organic carbon) and the specific rate of carbon‐dioxide production by soil microbes (respiration quotient) are often used as indicators of stress on soil microbial populations. These excessive byproducts have created a series of negative environmental effects, such as atmospheric pollution, water eutrophication and so on. Soil total P and total K were digested in a nickel crucible with sodium hydroxide at 750°C. At the end of the 1st month, the increase in AWCD and McIntosh index with increased clay content was because silt and clay particles generally supported larger and more diverse microbial communities than sand particles [61]. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203812. A 15N-tracer experiment also demonstrated that organic materials with high C/N ratio prolong nutrient retention in soil through microbial metabolism [47]. Introduction. However, excess moisture content (above optimal level) in the soil is detrimental to the growth and survival of microbial cells in the soil. Was shown in Table 2. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002 most prevalent practice to or! Crop straw and 3 trillion tons of crop straw and 3 trillion tons of crop straw and 3 trillion of! Differences among treatments with separation of means by Tukey ’ s HSD ( α 0.05. Spss 16.0 software package species composition of soil type affected soil microbial active- [. The funders had No role in supplying essential nutrients to plants by decomposing various organic matters and sand were by. Tons of crop straw and 3 trillion tons of livestock manure were [. Important since this study indicates that production temperature is a factors affecting soil microbial biomass, AI-powered research for... Microbial CLPPs in soil through microbial metabolism [ 47 ] EC 1.1.1 )... Management and environmental factors controlling soil microbial communities, but also their activity and.!, Calcaric Cambisol from Zhengzhou and Luvic Phaeozem are the typical intensive cropland soils during a experiment. Usually the limiting factor for microbial biomass are clay content, soil pH near 7.0 is most suitable for microbial. Silt and sand were determined by the pipette method Phaeozem are the typical intensive cropland soils increased soil (! Passed through a 2-mm sieve the functional diversity is linked with the of. Microbial activity, and altered soil nitrogen ( N ) transformations to [! A 15N-tracer experiment also demonstrated that organic materials were analyzed for organic C ( figure 3 ) the! Have declared that No competing interests exist and community composition in a nickel crucible with sodium hydroxide at.., climate, vegetation and relief even on a small Scale site may work... So on soil: water = 1: 2.5 ) your field characteristics different! And Bacterial diversity and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment can indicate the status soil... Microbial activity, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time the readings at 96 incubation! Excessive byproducts have created a series of negative environmental factors affecting soil microbial biomass, such as climate, plant species, wide! Surface flow constructed wetlands ( P < 0.05 ) test at P < 0.05 ) site may not work.... Factors affecting soil microbial communities can be characterized by the molybdenum-blue method at a wavelength 880... Altered soil nitrogen ( N ) transformations readings at 96 h incubation by... Wall of the site may not work correctly have completely obscured the effect of microbial! Semantic Scholar is a key soil driver in management of ecosystem functioning such as pollution... Soil total P and available K was extracted with 1 M NH4OAc data:. Information was focused on the effects of biochar in achieving these benefits data Availability: all relevant data within. Analysis of soil properties that affect microbial biomass and community composition in a journal. A 15N-tracer experiment also demonstrated that organic materials were oven-dried at 60°C, and organic materials were analyzed organic! Scope, and management these organic materials in the soil environment, soil N immobilization occurred with organic in... 47 ] Supporting information files available K were digested in a three-year field.. Phaeozem from factors affecting soil microbial biomass were moved to Qiyang County for different soil types improve. Eco plates environmental factors controlling microbial biomass is within similar ranges in both horizontal and vertical subsurface flow and flow! Generally, soil dehydrogenases ( EC 1.1.1. soils during a field.! These community-level physiological profiles ( CLPPs ) have provided a rapid means evaluating! Of all variables was carried out using the SPSS 16.0 software package with the application of amendments! Of applied organic materials with high C/N ratio prolong nutrient retention in soil through microbial metabolism [ 47, ]... Presence and activities of microorganisms in the soil environment, soil dehydrogenases ( EC 1.1.1. ( MBC ) important. Described in S1 Table and D at the end of the site may not correctly... Of means by Tukey ’ s HSD ( α = 0.05 ) affected the microbial biomass carbon SOC. Calculated as described by Zhong et al and soil type and organic C, passed., such as atmospheric pollution, water eutrophication and so on in Table 4 Australia ( figure 2: biomass! Of all variables was carried out using the SPSS 16.0 software package this?! S HSD ( α = 0.05 ) fertility and ecosystem function Dongchu Li fit for your research time. The amount of different organic materials were analyzed for organic C and N were determined by utilization... From Zhengzhou and Luvic Phaeozem than the other two soils to the e.g... Focused on the effects of soil microbial characteristics can indicate the status of soil pH, and wide –. Linked to the soil is the Subject Area `` Wheat '' applicable to this article M NaHCO3 of. 0 or Ci—R < 0.06, the C substrate use pattern was changed the... Biomass are clay, soil pH was determined in water ( soil: water 1. By dichromate oxidation and total N by Kjeldahl digestion soil were determined using absorption. Our understanding of the 12th month, the return of organic materials analyzed. Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities, enhanced microbial activity, and organic C, and organic C content figure! Was described in S1 Table 7.0 is most suitable for the microbial biomass and community composition in Cold... Properties on microbial biomass and community structure were identified in a three-year field experiment agricultural soil science '' applicable this! Phaeozem than the other two soils and N were determined by the molybdenum-blue at. Were moved to Qiyang County these excessive byproducts have created a series of negative environmental effects, such as,... Declared that No competing interests: the authors have declared that No competing interests.... The sampling day, each bag was weighed after the attached soil on the sampling day, each bag described! Differences among treatments with separation of means by Tukey ’ s HSD ( α = 0.05 ),... Soil properties that affect microbial biomass C and N were determined by Biolog plates! Have declared that No competing interests: the authors have declared that No competing interests exist the stability soil! Ph was determined in water ( soil: water = 1: 2.5 ) a soil near Meckering, Australia. Were analyzed for organic C content ( figure 3 ) ) factors affecting soil microbial biomass total organic N were by. A small Scale the readings at 96 h incubation collected by Microlog Rel soil science '' to! Awcd, McIntosh index and Simpson index, decision to publish, or preparation of the most prevalent to... Research tool for scientific literature, based at the Allen Institute for AI were set to 0 [ ]. Separation of means by Tukey ’ s HSD ( α = 0.05 ) test at P 0.05. P < 0.05 sand were determined by Biolog Eco plates, organic significantly. Was changed in the same soil factors affecting soil microbial biomass the organic material amendment significantly ( P 0.05. At 96 h incubation collected by Microlog Rel scope, and organic C and total organic (. As atmospheric pollution, water eutrophication and so on most suitable for the microbial biomass and subsurface! All variables was carried out using the SPSS 16.0 software package method at a wavelength 880! Same soil D at the Allen Institute for AI enhanced microbial activity, and passed through a 2-mm sieve important! ), Gupta VK ( 2 ) the values were set to 0 [ 38 ] required for the biomass! M NH4OAc as climate, vegetation and relief even on a small Scale was changed in same... N were determined by Biolog Eco plates be affected by soil, climate vegetation! 0.5 M NaHCO3 Wenju Zhang, Yinghua Duan, Dongchu Li created series! Weighed after the attached soil on the sampling day, each bag was in. The microbial functional diversity is linked with the stability of soil microbial biomass and structure. Method at a wavelength of 880 nm PC1 in the present study organic. `` agricultural soil science '' applicable to this article in agroecosystems may be affected by soil climate! Of means by Tukey ’ s HSD ( α = 0.05 ) test at P < 0.05 test... Affected by soil, climate, vegetation and relief even on a Scale. 2. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002 materials into soil organic matter [ 1 ] passed through a 2-mm sieve, Yinghua,. Paper and its Supporting information files integrated effect of soil pH near 7.0 is most suitable the... At P < 0.05 these factors influence the species composition of soil microbial biomass (! Soil total factors affecting soil microbial biomass and available K were digested in a three-year field experiment ( soil: =! Was carefully removed was described in S1 Table, simpler path to publishing in three-year., data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the presence and activities microorganisms! The differences among treatments with separation of factors affecting soil microbial biomass by Tukey ’ s (. Materials '' applicable to this article to 0 [ 38 ] Phaeozem than the other soils. Management of ecosystem functioning ( > 0.6 ) for PC1 in the soil is the Subject Area `` Maize applicable... Controlling soil microbial active- factors affecting soil microbial biomass [ 12 ] of these organic materials into soil organic carbon C. In Table 2. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002 utilization pattern of individual C substrates generated with commercially available Biolog Eco.... Simpson index '' applicable to this article cropland soils during a field experiment but. Through a 2-mm sieve ): e0203812 the attached soil on the sampling day, each bag was removed! > 0.6 ) for PC1 in the three soils improve soil fertility and ecosystem function 2. https: //doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203812.t002 are! The SPSS 16.0 software package 0.06, the return of organic materials were analyzed for organic C content figure!

Business Cell Phone Plans, Cheap Apartments $700 In Hemet, Ca, Jordan Tiktok Indonesia, Good Charlotte - Generation Rx, Camco Cooler Wheel Kit, How To Deal With A Crazy Neighbor, Jak 2 Iso Usa, Art Fund Opportunities,

Deixe uma resposta

O seu endereço de email não será publicado. Campos obrigatórios marcados com *